Motor vehicle transportation, whether in private, public, or school-bus
vehicles, is vital in today’s society. Ready access to transportation is not
only essential for most occupations and education, but also for accessing
healthcare providers, religious services, recreation and leisure activities, shopping, voting, and many other community activities and services. As reported
by the National Council on Disability, the need for transportation is even
greater for individuals who use wheelchairs, including those who are unable
to transfer out of their wheelchair when traveling (Bureau of Transportation
Statistics, 2002; National Council on Disability, 2005). 

In situations where
the wheelchair must function as a motor-vehicle seat, serious concerns arise. 
Transportation safety and occupant crash-protection studies have shown that
a motor vehicle seat is an important part of an occupant-protection system. 

For this reason, wheelchairs that are used as motor vehicle seats must also be designed for this purpose. Wheelchairs prescribed for individuals